A group of the researchers from the University of Hamburg has produced the modern transistor based on modern principles. It is developed as demands for computer chips in laptops as well as tablet and smartphones continue to rise. The modern transistor has come with characteristics such as energy saving and flexibility. The group of the researcher led by Mr. Dr. Christian Klinke has successfully invented transistors based on entirely different principles. To produce modern transistor, the researcher uses metal nanoparticles. The metal nanoparticles are small in size so they do not display their metallic character below current flow and they exhibit an energy gap caused. The energy gap can be lifted dynamically through a controlling voltage and according to the need, it is possible to adjust the switched on and off.

The nanoparticles are deposited as thin films with only one layer instead of deposited as individual structures. Retaining this method, the electrical characteristics of the devices become adjustable. The modern transistors are used for the commercial applications. The combination of the colloidal chemistry and metal nanoparticles is controllable as well as scalable, and it provides small nanocrystals. The high-quality monolayered films are provided by the Langmuir-Blodgett deposition method, enables the use of standard lithography methods for the design of the components. Christian Klinke said, “Scientifically interesting is that the metal particles inherit semiconductor-like properties due to their small size. Of course, there is still a lot of research to be done, but our work shows that there are alternatives to traditional transistor concepts that can be used in the future in various fields of application”. Further, he added, “The devices developed in our group can not only be used as transistors, but they are also very interesting as chemical sensors because the interstices between the nanoparticles, which act as so-called tunnel barriers, react highly sensitive to chemical deposits”.